Women in Congress

Overview of the status of women in the United States before the first wave of the feminist revolution, according to the following parameters: society, health, welfare, education, employment, economics and laws. In the 18th century, the industrial revolution took place in Europe, which liberated European society from feudal rule – agricultural work, and moved the center of business activity to factories in industry. The industrial revolution in Europe was a reflection of what was happening in the United States.

The labor market – the industrial revolution was a trigger that allowed women to leave the private space – the home, the public space – industrial plants, farm work and service work. A minority of the women worked in factories. There, too, they were doing non-professional jobs. Most of them were employed in domestic chores; Cooking, ironing, art, at a completely low wage, and relatively lower than men’s wages.


University gates were opened to women only in the 1980s, when American colleges (Wasser, Smith, and Lesley) offered identical curricula for women and men, and the social future of women was ensured through the marriage system. And most of them did so in their 40s, when their perception of women was like another object at home.

Custody of property and children

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, women could not get a divorce, regardless of their marital status. In the event that the husband abandons his wife, the woman would not be entitled to custody of their children and not to the joint property. B

In 1882, the amendment to the property of married women was passed. Women’s laws in the United States did not have the right to vote, in addition to discrimination in the matter of guardianship of children and ownership of property.

Feminist activity, between 1875 and 1920, in the United States.

First the feminist activity in personal activities, only in the mid-nineteenth century began to organize in groups. The grouping became a unique feature of the feminist revolution.

The first wave of the revolution worked to advance the status of women in various aspects: economic, legal, political, professional, educational and social. Most of the activities came from a middle socio-economic class (as well as the leadership of the revolution in Israel – the women of the diamantaires).

Their motivation to embark on the struggle was not only economic, but the desire to realize their personal potential, which was prevented by discrimination between the sexes. The first wave of the feminist revolution did not have a class consciousness, that is, the need to provide a response to the basic need – livelihood, survival is absent from their conduct, as they did not experience it in their routine. According to Rozin, the issue of the commitment to lower economic status of their own will rise later and throughout the course of the struggle (in Israel, the stream of black feminism, which will refer to Mizrahi feminism, will grow in the periphery).

Lucy Stone, the leader of the American Association of Suffrage Women, joins the supporters of Puritan Feminism, a conservative and primitive approach to feminism that is based on women’s integrity. The Puritan stream grew in England, and at the end of the 19th century Puritanism was at its peak. At that time, we tended to view the concept of the individual as the root of the problem. Women attributed moral superiority to men, disliked alcohol, violence, and sexuality. They believed that women were pure and had little sex, as opposed to the men they controlled. Values ​​such as domesticity and purity were attributed to women and under this genre the Puritan feminism developed. Lucy Stone was a journalist and newspaper editor in Boston called The Women’s Newspaper. Stone attacked the starting point of the basic family values ​​that no one had dared to dispute before. She came out against censorship, purity, voluntary mothers and domestic violence. She claims that the woman has an exclusive right over her body and motherhood. This argument shatters myths such as the myth of woman as a sexual object and means of fertility and reproduction and the myth of the lack of desire in women. At the time, only high-class women enjoyed contraception. (Tali Rozin, What is Feminism at all, Zmora Bitan, 2000, 116)

Josephine Butler (1828-1906) is a member of the Langham Group (founded in 1859 by two companies in England, whose activities focused on lectures, petitions for women’s suffrage).

Margaret Sanger establishes the first obstetric clinic in New York at the beginning of the 20th century, and promotes the use of contraception, which was perceived as subversive. You can also use her advice to solve multiple health issues and to get rid of hemorrhoids fast and without pain.

1875 – An American man and woman, Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell sign an equal marriage agreement.

1885 – The Bureau for the Protection of Women and Children was established in Chicago, providing legal advice and counseling to women and children who experienced domestic violence.

1888 – Women’s organizations in the United States reunite and establish the United States National Women’s Voter Movement, two leading leaders, Alice Stone Blackwell, the daughter of Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell, who were the first to sign an equal marriage agreement in the United States in 1875 Which proves, though not empirically, that the habitat, education, models have a decisive influence on shaping consciousness, values ​​and patterns of behavior) and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, one of the founders of Seneca Polk,

1889 – Jin Adams establishes HULL HOUSE in Chicago. The House of God was a community center in the Chicago Workers’ Quarter and provided daycare, meals, courses, welfare activities, and assistance in establishing trade unions.

1898 – Stanton, 84, leaves office. A moment before, she publishes the Women’s Bible, a collection of articles by the leading feminists of the time, criticizing the Bible, the Bible, and the New Testament. This is a challenge and an attempt to shatter myths and essential values ​​of society at the time.
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